Wednesday, August 17, 2011

GMAT jargon

Take home Some GMAT jargon. Jus gorge on them

Yes, you heard it right…there are words typical to GMAT verbal ( critical reasoning and reading comprehension).. here’s a list comes handy in RC/CR.

Allusion : Indirect reference to a person, place or event to another.

Archaism : The use of words and expressions that have become obsolete in common speech.

Burlesque : An incognito imitation; it imitates the matter or form of a play in an amusing manner.

Connotation and denotation : The denotation of a word is its primary meaning; connotation is the range of accompanying meanings in which it suggests or implies.

Motif and theme : A motif is an element – an incident, device or formula – which recurs frequently.

Prosody : Systematic study of writing verse (poem); principles in the use of rhyme, stanza etc.

Anecdote : Simple narration of a single incident.

Pastoral elegy : Represents both the mourner and the one he mourns.

Figurative language : Deviates from what we apprehend as the standard significance or sequence of words, in order to achieve special meaning or effect.

Symbol : A word or set of words that signifies an object or event which itself signifies something else.

historicism : A theory that history is determined by unchangeable laws and not by human agency or, it is a theory that all cultural phenomena are historically determined and that historians much study each period without imposing any personal or absolute value system.

Historical School : A school of economics maintaining that any economic theory must be based on historical studies of economic institutions.

Idealism : A philosophical system or theory that maintains that are real is of the nature of thought or that the object of external perception consists of ideas; the pursuit of high noble principles.

Existentialism : A philosophical movement that stresses the individual’s position as a self-determining agent responsible for his or her own choices.

Humanism : Assumes the dignity and central position of man in the universe and emphasizes on moral and practical rather than purely aesthetic values.

aberrant/aberration deviating from the norm.

aesthetic dealing with, appreciative of, or responsive to art or the beautiful.

anomaly deviation from the normal order, form, or rule, abnormality.

archaic outdated; associated with an earlier, perhaps more primitive, time.

aver to state as a fact; to confirm or support.

bolster to provide support or reinforcement.

bombast / bombastic self–evident or pompous writing or speech; pompous; grandiloquent.

buttress to reinforce or support.

capricious inclined to change one’s mind impulsively; erratic; unpredictable.

censure to criticize severely; to officially rebuke.

cynicism an attitude or quality of belief that all people are motivated by selfishness.

derision scorn, ridicule, contemptuous treatment.

diatribe a harsh denunciation.

didactic intended to teach or instruct.

digress(ive) to turn aside; to stray from the main point.

discretion cautious reserve in speech; ability to make responsible decisions.

disinterest(ed) (edness) indifferent; free from self-interest.

dogma(tic) (tism) (tist) stubbornly opinionated.

eclectic composed of elements drawn from various sources.

elegy a mournful poem, especially one lamenting the dead.

empirical based on observation or experiment.

enigma(tic) mysterious; obscure; difficult to understand.

ephemeral brief; fleeting.

equivocate to use ambiguous language with a deceptive intent.

erudite (ition) very learned; scholarly.

esoteric intended for or understood by a small, specific group.

eulogy(ize) a speech honoring the dead.

fallacy an invalid or incorrect notion; a mistaken belief.

foster to nourish, cultivate, promote.

grandiloquence pompous speech or expression.

hackneyed rendered trite or commonplace by frequent usage.

hyperbole an exaggerated statement, often used as a figure of speech.

iconoclast one who attacks or undermines traditional conventions or institutions.

indifferent having no interest or concern; showing no bias or prejudice.

inimical damaging; harmful; malevolent.

laconic using few words; terse.

laud (able) (-tory) to praise highly.

loquacious extremely talkative.

lucid clear; easily understood.

maverick an independent individual who does not go along with a group or party.

pedant(ic)(ry) uninspired, boring academic.

pragmatic/pragmatism practical; moved by facts rather than abstract ideals.

profundity depth (usually depth of thought).

prosaic dull; unimaginative.

refute to disprove; to successfully argue against.

repudiate to refuse to have anything to do with; disown.

rhetoric the art of study of effective use of language for communication and persuasion.

satire a literary work that ridicules or criticizes a human vice through humor or derision.

specious(ness) seeming true, but actually being fallacious; misleadingly attractive.

subtle not obvious; elusive; difficult to discern.

succinct brief; concise.

superfluous exceeding what is sufficient or necessary.

tacit implied; not explicitly stated.

terse brief and concise in wording.

tirade a long and extremely critical speech; a harsh denunciation.

trenchant sharply perceptive; keen; penetrating

untenable indefensible; not viable; uninhabitable.

veracity truthfulness; honesty.

Objective assessment: (dispassionate / disinterested presentation)
The author reacts to a piece of work not influenced by personal feelings or prejudice. Assessing a piece of work based on its own inherent reality than by the evaluators whims and fancies. Judgment done through the intrinsic criteria of the work itself.

Biased interpretation: (subjective / prejudiced.)
An author’s opinion or feeling that strongly
favours one side of an argument, sometimes unfairly.

Skepticism: This would imply criticism, doubt or questioning the logic of an argument. This expresses the author’s disagreement with a hypothesis, idea, proposition, finding of a study and the like.

Pointed disagreement: Sharp criticism / unrelenting criticism; the author disagrees with an idea completely. There will be explicit statements in the passage denoting this.

Qualified admiration: (Limited / modified / restricted endorsement.)
Here the author is quite specific in his approval; he admires the person / idea discussed for certain qualities and may be critical of certain other aspects.

Grudging respect / approval: This is characterized by unwillingness from the part of the author to concede completely to the idea; he expresses his opinion reluctantly.

Optimism / hope: The author would express hope and expectation in say, solving a problem, implementing a recommendation.

Enthusiastic endorsement: The author wholeheartedly approves of the idea and / or supports the findings, recommendations or propositions.

Eulogy: Extreme praise for the author being reviewed or person or idea under discussion.

Satirical: The author expresses scorn / ridicule / derision; he laughs at the matter under discussion.

Ironical: The author uses words to convey the opposite meaning of what he expresses. One thing is said and its opposite is implied.

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